Country: Iran


Encyclopedia Britannica, (2001)



Official Country Name

Islamic Republic of Iran (Persian:ايران‎)

Government Type

Theocractic and Presidential Democracy

Supreme Leader of Iran: Ali Khamenei

Presidency of the Islamic Republic of Iran: Hassan Rouhani

Speaker of the Majlis[1]: Ali Larijani

First deputy speaker: Masoud Pezeshkian

Second Deputy Speaker: Ali Motahari

  • Chief Justice: Ebrahim Raeisi




Ethnic groups

Ethnic groups: Persians 51%, Azeri 24%, Gilaki and Mazandarani 8%, Kurds 7%, Arabs 3%, Lurs 2%, Baloch 2%, Turkmen 2%, other 1%.


Iran has a hot, dry climate characterized by long, hot, dry summers and short, cool winters. In most of the areas, summers are warm to hot with virtually continuous sunshine, but high humidity on the southern coastal areas of the Persian Gulf where dily life would be toug.  Daily Temperatures can be very hot; on some days temperatures can reach easily 40°C or more, especially along the Persian Gulf as well as Oman Sea which causes a danger of heat exhaustion.

The climate is influenced by Iran’s location between the subtropical aridity of the Arabian desert areas and the subtropical humidity of the eastern Mediterranean area.  January is the coldest month, with temperatures from 5°C to 10°C, and August is the hottest month at 20°C to 30°C or more. About 70 percent of the average rainfall in the country falls between November and March; June through August are often rainless. Rainfall varies from season to season and from year to year.


Land Area: 1,531,595 sq km

Water Area: 116,600 sq km





Main cities [2020 census]

Tehran )7,153,309(           Mashhad (2,307,177)

Esfehan(1,547,164)         Karaj(1,448,075)

Tabriz (1,424,641)             Shiraz(1,249,942)


Official and National Language

Persian (Farsi)

Other Languages

Azerbaijani, Kurdish, Lori, Mazandarani, Gilaki, Balochi and Arabic.

Main Religion

89% Shi’a branch of Islam (official state religion)

Other Religions

9% Sunni branch of Islam- 2% are non-Muslim religious minorities (Zoroastrians, Jews, Christians, Mandeans, Hindus, and Yarsanis)

Education literacy rate (2016)

Youth total (% of people ages 15-24) 98.10

youth female 97.93

youth male  98.27

Adult total (% of people ages 15 and above)   85.54

adult female  80.79

adult male 90.35

Old total (% of people ages 65 and above) 36.77

adult female  24.88

adult male 49.94

Child mortality: 2018

The value for Mortality rate, under -5 (per 1,000 live births) 14.40

The value for Mortality rate, neonatal (per 1,000 live births)  8.90

International telephone area code


Driving side


ISO        3166                                Committee: ISO/TC 46       ICS: 01.140.30

 Official Website


Iran and ancient Persia have a long, creative and  glorious history. Iran is home to one of the world’s oldest continuous major civilizations, with historical and urban settlements dating back to 7000 BC. Iran was reunified as an independent state in 1501 by the Safavid dynasty, which set Shia Islam as the empire’s official religion.

Iran had been a monarchy ruled by an emperor almost without interruption from 1501 until the 1979 Iranian Revolution, when Iran officially became an Islamic republic on April 1, 1979. The Islamic Republic of Iran was formed in 1979 after the Iranian Revolution, a short conflict in which the Iranian monarchy was overthrown and replaced by a theocracy. The revolution was led by Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini, a popular Shia cleric (Ulema), who then became its first leader, a position referred to as Supreme Leader. Upon the death of Khomeini in June 1989, the Assembly of Experts elected Ayatollah Ali Khamenei as his successor.


Geographically, Iran is located in West Asia and borders the Caspian Sea, Persian Gulf, and Gulf of Oman with an area of 1,648,000 square kilometers (636,000 sq.mi), Iran ranks seventeenth in size among the countries of the world.

Iran borders seven countries and two large coastlines. In the west, it shares its longest border with Iraq and smaller ones with Turkey, Armenia, and Azerbaijan, these borders extend for more than 2,000 kilometers (1,200 mi), including nearly 650 kilometers (400 mi) of water along the southern shore of the Caspian Sea.  Iran’s north is the Persian Gulf and Gulf of Oman littorals form the entire 1,770 kilometers (1,100mi) southern border. To the east lie Afghanistan on the north and Pakistan on the far south.

Iran has two high mountain ranges, the Zagros and the Elburz as well as has three large rivers the Atrek, Safid, and Karun. The capital of Iran is Tehran.


Politics and government

The politics of Iran take place in a framework that officially combines elements of theocracy and presidential democracy. Iran has a democratically elected president, a parliament (or Majlis), an Assembly of Experts which elects the Supreme Leader. In addition, there are representatives elected from appointed organizations, usually under the Supreme Leader’s control to protect the state’s Islamic character.

The December 1979 constitution, and its 1989 amendment, define the political, economic, and social order of the Islamic Republic of Iran, declaring that Shia Islam is Iran’s official religion where around 90–95% of Iranians associate themselves with the Shia branch of Islam. According to the constitution, all candidates running for these positions must be vetted by the Guardian Council before being elected. Under the constitution, elections are to be held at least every four years, supervised by the Council of Guardians. Suffrage is universal, and the minimum voting age is 16.

Two Main active parties inside of Iran are Front of Islamic Revolution Stability and Islamic Coalition Party. The justification for Iran’s mixed system of government can be found in the concept of velāyat-e faqīh.



The economy of Iran is a mixed and transition economy with a large public sector. It is the world’s eighteenth largest by Purchasing Power Parity (PPP). Most of the country’s exports are oil and gas, accounting for a majority of government revenue in 2010. Oil export revenues enabled Iran to amass well over $135 billion in foreign exchange reserves as of December 2016. Iran ranked first in scientific growth in the world in 2011 and has one of the fastest rates of development in telecommunication globally.

Iran’s economy has been hit hard since US sanctions which were reimposed in mid 2018, and as a result nearly half of its imports and exports have halted with an estimate of 600,000 barrels of oil being slashed and the national currency falling to a record low against the US dollar. Iran has since embarked on an economy of resistance as a remedy.[citation needed]

In SH 2020, the economy is seen contracting again. The latest round of U.S. sanctions will deal a blow to the non-oil private sector, while the oil economy remains crippled by prior sanctions. Moreover, the Covid-19 outbreak will likely further constrict activity. Volatile oil prices poses a downside risk to the outlook. Panelists see the economy contracting 1.3% in SH 2020, which is down 0.7 percentage points from last month’s forecast. In SH 2021, the economy is seen growing 1.8%.

Iran is considered an “energy superpower.” A unique feature of Iran’s economy is the presence of large religious foundations called Bonyad, whose combined budgets represent more than 30 percent of central government spending.


Nobel Peace Prize

The Nobel Peace Prize 2003 was awarded to Shirin Ebadi “for her efforts for democracy and human rights. She has focused especially on the struggle for the rights of women and children.


The Persian language written since the 9th century with a slightly extended form of the Arabic alphabet. New Persian is known as Farsī (فارسی) in Iran.

Persian literature is the jewel in the crown of Persian culture. It has profoundly influenced the literatures of Ottoman Turkey, Muslim India and Turkic Central Asia and been a source of inspiration for Goethe, Emerson, Matthew Arnold and Jorge Luis Borges among others. The persian literature has two historical aspect which includs ancient or old and new literature.

The old persian literature is prose and poetry with rhymed. It had some principle and fix form to write poem that  they called Qasideh, Masnavi, Qazal and Ruba’i. The most known authors in Old period were  Molana, Khayyam, Hafez, Saadi Shirzai and Ferdowsi. The new literature almost beging after 1925 with Parwin Etesami, Mohammad taghi Bahar, Nima youshige. In more contemporary period persian literature ettempts to experint other forms and it left the classical forms as prose and poetry. The important outhors are Ahmad Shamlou, Reza barahani, Froug Farochzad.


The Media of Iran are privately and publicly owned but is subject to censorship, it is accountable to Islamic Law and heavily censored by the ruling religious clerics.

The Iranian national Channal called Islamic Republic of Iran Broadcasting (IRIB). It has tweleve Radio channals and therty staions for international audiences. Among the channels broadcasting in Farsi into Iran from abroad, the most watched are BBC Persian, funded by the UK government, Voice of America-Persian News Network (VOA PNN), funded by the United States and Manoto TV.

Iran has more than 250 newspapers and magazines which are published in persian but there are some newspapers in english and other languages. it also has fiffteen thuosends information sites and two million bloges. Most popular daily newspapers include HamShahiri, Ettelaat, Iran and resalat. There two newspapers which both are in English, once called Iran Daily and other called Theran times.



National Holiday

Nowruz: 20 – 23 Mar

Oil Nationalization Day: 19 Mar

Iranian Revolution: 11 Feb

Islamic Republic Day: 30 Mar

Death of Khomeini: 3 Jun

Revolt of Khordad 15: 4 Jun


Religious holidays

Eid al-Fitr: 23 – 25 May

Day of Ashura (Shia): 28 – 29 Aug

Prophet’s Birthday: 2-3 Nov

Event of Ghadir Khumm: 7-8 Aug



At 8 June 1900, Mirza ebrahim Akaas Bashi shot at a flower festival in Ostend, Belgium was probably the first film ever shot by a Persian cameraman (Moẓaffar-al-Dīn Shah).

The first wave of Iranian cinema began in 1969 and then ended with the beginning of the Iranian revolution in 1979. The first films were Ahoo Khanoom -1968, The Cow-1969, Simple Event-1973 and etc.

The Iranian cinema had second new wave either which began with some films such as Where Is the Friend’s Home?- 1987, close up-1990, Children of Heaven 1997.

The Iranian cinema has two Oscars for 2 films which they are Separation- 2012 and The Salesman-2016.



The education system in Iran is divided into two main levels: primary education and high-school education. All children spend primary level from ages six to twelve and attend high school since ages twelve to eighteen. In Iran, therefore, both primary and secondary school students work hard to reach the next level of education. There are many free public schools as well as private schools. In Iran, all schools are single- sex.

The Main high school fields that can select them are including Humanity studies, Physic & Mathematic studies, biologic studies and as other studies there are Art, Languages and technic studies. For entrance of university in Iran should pass a difficult exam which it called Konkour.


Structure of Iranian school system

Pre-primary (compulsory)

Age: Five

Length: One years

Primary Education (compulsory)

Age: Six to eleven

Length: Five years

Middle (Guidance) Cycle

Age: Eleven to thirteen

Length: Two years

Secondary Education

Age: Fourteen to eighteen

Length: Four years

Tertiary Education

Bachelor’s degree

Length: Four to Five years

Master’s Degree

Length: Two to three

Doctoral Degree (PhD)

Length: Four years




Iran (Islamic Republic of) | UNESCO UIS

Iran – Country Profile – Destination Iran – Nations Online Project


[1] The Iranian parliament, the Islamic Consultative Assembly